UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings was designed by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in collaboration with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and launched in March 1999. GPAT assists member states in their efforts to combat trafficking in human beings. It highlights the involvement of organized criminal groups in human trafficking and promotes the development of effective ways of cracking down on perpetrators.
UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights
The UN Commission on Human Rights mandated a Special Rapporteur to respond effectively to reliable information on possible human rights violations with a view to protecting the human rights of actual or potential victims of trafficking and to cooperate fully with other relevant special rapporteurs, in particular the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, and to take full account of their contributions to the issue.
UNICEF is committed to the protecting children from violence, exploitation and abuse as it is an integral component of protecting their rights to survival, growth and development.
The Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (CMW) is created under the international human rights treaties and receives secretariat support from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
The CMW is a body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families by its State parties. It is the newest treaty body and held its first session in March 2004.
The Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) advocates the improvement of the status of women of the world and the achievement of their equality with men. Aiming to ensure the participation of women as equal partners with men in all aspects of human endeavour, the Division promotes women as equal participants and beneficiaries of sustainable development, peace and security, governance and human rights.
The International Labour Organisation is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. The ILO established the Special Action Programme to combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL) in 2001 to spearhead ILO activities against forced labour, including trafficking. It is a broad-based technical cooperation programme working at the request of member states and in close collaboration with workers and employers, civil society and other international organisations.
The IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As the leading international organisation for migration, IOM acts with its partners in the international community, particularly to assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration management.
Interpol actively seeks to increase and improve international law enforcement co-operation in order to help combat trafficking in women. Interpol derives its actions from the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the additional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons. The protocol urges an increase in the information exchange between states in order to identify victims and perpetrators of trafficking.
There are several committees in the European Parliament related to trafficking in persons.
Both the EP Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) and the EP Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) drafted a report on trafficking in 2006.
The European Commission is pushing forward harmonisation of national criminal laws and procedures in the member states, covering jurisdiction, prosecution and the standing of the victims in judicial proceedings. Two important legislative acts were adopted: the Council Framework Decision in 2002 and the Directive on Temporary Residence Permit in 2004. In 2003 the Commission installed the EU Expert Group on trafficking in Human Beings. In 2005 the European Action Plan on trafficking was launched.
Europol is the European Union law enforcement organisation that handles criminal intelligence. Its aim is to improve the effectiveness and co-operation between the competent authorities of the member states in preventing and combating serious international organised crime and terrorism. Europol’s mandate is to support the work of the member states in combating and preventing trafficking of human beings. All of Europol’s current activity in the field of preventing and combating trafficking in human beings is in relation to trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation. While it is evident that trafficking for labour exploitation is an equally important issue it has not been prioritised by the member states.
Campaign against Trafficking
The Council of Europe Campaign to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings was launched in 2006. The Campaign aims to raise awareness among governments, parliamentarians, NGOs and civil society of the extent of the problem of trafficking in human beings in Europe today. It highlights the different measures which can be taken to prevent this new form of slavery, as well as measures to protect the human rights of victims and prosecute the traffickers and their accomplices. The campaign also aims to promote the widest possible signature and ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in order that it may enter into force rapidly.
European Committee on Migration
The European Committee on Migration acts to develop European co-operation on migration, on the situation and social integration of populations of migrant origin and refugees and on community relations; – to prepare the Conferences of European Ministers responsible for Migration Affairs and ensure the follow-up to them, having regard to the relevant decisions of the Committee of Ministers.
Actions against trafficking of the OSCE include legislative reforms, training of law enforcement authorities and improving the security of travel documents. The economic impact of all these forms of trafficking is also closely followed.
ICMPD is an inter-governmental organisation based in Vienna and was created in 1993 at the initiative of Switzerland and Austria. In total, more than 30 governments actively support the ICMPD, it was granted diplomatic status in 2000. The purpose of the Centre is to promote comprehensive and sustainable migration policies and to function as a service exchange mechanism for governments and organisations primarily on European migration issues. It also acts as Secretariat for the Budapest Process, which deals with harmonising entry control. It also shares close co-operation with UN/CICP, Europol, Interpol, IGC, the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, IOM amongst others.